What is a printed circuit board?

A printed circuit board enables complex circuits to be grouped together in a stable, modular design. This equipment supports the electronic components of the circuit and provides the connections of all these circuits to each other. Printed circuit boards allow companies to mass-produce complex electronic devices.



A printed circuit board is generally composed of several layers of materials. They also exist in single or double sided version.

The conductive material is copper, in sheets, laminated on a non-conductive surface. Holes, called passages, are drilled in the circuit board, allowing the conductors placed on the various layers of the board to be connected.

The printed circuit boards have a variant, called a printed wiring circuit. It is a printed circuit board with no components on the card itself.

When a printed circuit board is filled with components, it is sometimes referred to as a printed circuit board assembly. Another term also used by the association of electronic industries of connection (IPC) is printed circuit board assembly.

The printed circuit boards are used by amateur manufacturers and electronics. The manufacturing process of these cards is complex enough for some amateur electronics to have them manufactured by a subcontractor.

The easiest way to have an overview of a printed circuit board is to open the computer’s desktop cover and look at the components that make it work. The largest printed circuit board of a computer is the motherboard. The latter is connected to the other printed circuit boards via connectors, partly described hereinafter. These connectors ensure stable electrical connections and, through their design, also ensure that heavy components such as video cards or other peripherals do not damage the card or fall on it due to their weight.

The latest computers tend to have different types of PCB connectors than those of older computers, and their comparison allows you to track the evolution of connectors used with printed circuit boards.

Many PCB connectors have a kind of blocking mechanism that prevents the connection from accidentally shutting down. Due to the rather fragile nature of most printed circuit boards, it is essential to verify that the connector is not attached to the printed circuit board using this mechanism before attempting to disassemble it Forcing.


Design of maps

The process currently used to produce PCB assembly has been streamlined and allows manufacturers to produce complex electronic devices in large quantities at affordable prices.

An automated design tool is used to capture the desired circuit pattern. Then, the desired design is created, determining the dimensions and model required for the card.

A printed circuit board can have up to 12 layers. This allows the creation of very complex circuits. In addition to determining the number of layers of a printed circuit board, the next step is to establish the base plane and the power plane.

The line impedance of the circuit board is defined and then the position of the various components integrated in the circuit is determined. The next step is to plot the signal paths before creating a Gerber file used to finalize the design of the printed circuit boards.

While the design of printed circuit boards is a slow and laborious process, the very quick and inexpensive manufacture of these boards makes it possible to compensate for this disadvantage. After designing a printed circuit board, it can be manufactured many times at a relatively low price compared to circuit boards individually welded or made by point-to-point connections.


Manufacture of printed circuit boards

The manufacture of printed circuit boards is also a very complex process in several stages. The above-mentioned Gerber file is used to design a circuit board, but when this card is ready for manufacture, the information is converted into a DTP system.

With addition and removal procedures, manufacturers are able to produce strictly identical printed circuit boards, thus ensuring the ideal consistency of manufactured electronic products.